Friday, March 20, 2020

Famous Quotes from Woodrow Wilson

Famous Quotes from Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson (1856-1927), the 28th president of the United States, while not considered a terrific orator- he was more comfortable debating than orating- gave many speeches around the country and in Congress during his tenure. Many of them contained memorable quotations. Wilson's Career and Accomplishments Serving two consecutive terms as president, Wilson distinguished himself by leading the country into and out of the World War I and presiding over landmark progressive social and economic reforms, including the passage of the Federal Reserve Act and the Child Labor Reform Act. The 19th Amendment to the Constitution ensuring all women the right to vote was also passed during his administration. A Virginia-born lawyer, Wilson began his career as an academic, eventually landing at his alma mater, Princeton, where he rose to become president of the university. In 1910 Wilson ran as the Democratic Party’s candidate for New Jersey governor and won. Two years later he was elected president of the nation.   During his first term Wilson grappled with the war in Europe, insisting on U.S. neutrality, however by 1917 it was impossible to ignore German aggression, and Wilson asked Congress to declare war, asserting that â€Å"The world must be made safe for democracy. When the war ended, Wilson was a strong proponent of the League of Nations, a forerunner of the United Nations that Congress refused to join.   Notable Quotations Here are some  of Wilson’s most notable quotes:   The Constitution was not made to fit us like a straitjacket.†- A  speech about â€Å"Americanism† at the Cooper Union, in New York, NY, November 20, 1904.Life does not consist in thinking, it consists in acting.- Announcing his presidential campaign in Buffalo, NY, September 28th, 1912.I am not one of those who believes that a great standing army is the means of maintaining peace, because if you build up a great profession those who form parts of it want to exercise their profession.- from a speech in Pittsburgh, quoted in The Nation, February 3, 1916.I believe in democracy because it releases the energies of every human being.- At the Workingman’s Dinner, New York, September 4, 1912.If you think too much about being re-elected, it is very difficult to be worth reelecting.- Address at the celebration of the rededication of Congress Hall in Philadelphia, October 25, 1913.One cool judgment is worth a thousand hasty counsels. The thing to do is to supply light and not heat.- Address at Soldiers Memorial Hall, Pittsburgh, January 29, 1916. There is a price which is too great to pay for peace, and that price can be put in one word. One cannot pay the price of self-respect.- Speech at Des Moines, Iowa, February 1, 1916.The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.- on the State of War with Germany during an Address to Congress. April 2, 1917.The Americans who went to Europe to die are a unique breed.... (They) crossed the seas to a foreign land to fight for a cause which they did not pretend was peculiarly their own, which they knew was the cause of humanity and mankind. These Americans gave the greatest of all gifts, the gift of life and the gift of spirit.- speech at the American Memorial Day while visiting American graves at Suresnes Cemetery, May 30, 1919. Sources: Craig H. 1952. Woodrow Wilson as an orator. Quarterly Journal of Speech 38(2):145-148.Wilson W, and Pestritto RJ. 2005 Woodrow Wilson: The Essential Political Writings. Lanham, Massachusetts: Rowman Littlefield.Wilson W, and Hart AB. 1918 [2002]. Selected Addresses and Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific.Wilson, W, and Link, AS. 1993. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Princeton University Press.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

11 Taboos in Chinese Culture

11 Taboos in Chinese Culture Every culture has its own taboos, and it is important to remain aware of them when traveling or encountering another culture to ensure you dont commit a social faux-pas. In Chinese culture, some of the most common taboos involve gift-giving, birthdays, and weddings. Numbers According to Chinese tradition, good things come in pairs. Therefore odd numbers are avoided for birthday celebrations and weddings. To avoid bad things happening in pairs, activities such as burials and gift-giving are not performed on even-numbered days. In Chinese, the  number four (å››, sà ¬) sounds like the word for death (æ ­ », sÇ ). For this reason, the number four is avoided- particularly on phone numbers, license plates, and addresses. For addresses that do contain fours, the rent is usually less and apartments on the fourth floor are typically rented by foreigners. Work Shopkeepers may opt not to read a book at work because book (æ› ¸, shÃ… «) sounds like lose (è ¼ ¸, shÃ… «). Shopkeepers who read may be afraid their businesses will suffer losses. When it comes to sweeping, shopkeepers are careful not to sweep toward the door, especially during the Chinese New Year, in case good fortune is swept out into the street. When eating a meal, never turn over fish when you are with a fisherman as the motion symbolizes a boat capsizing. Also, never offer a friend an umbrella because the word umbrella (傘, sÇŽn) sounds similar to æ• £ (sn, to break up) and the act is a sign that you will never see each other again. Food Young children should not eat chicken feet as it is believed that doing so will prevent them from writing well when they start school. They may also become prone to fighting like roosters. Leaving food on one’s plate- particularly grains of rice- is believed to result in marriage to a spouse with many pockmarks on his or her face. Not finishing a meal is also believed to incur the wrath of the thunder god. Another Chinese taboo relating to food is that chopsticks should not be left standing straight up in a bowl of rice. This act is said to bring bad luck to restaurant owners as chopsticks stuck in rice look similar to incense placed in urns. Gift-Giving Since good things are believed to come in pairs, gifts given in pairs (except sets of four) are best. When preparing the gift, do not wrap it in white as that color represents sorrow and poverty. Certain gifts are also seen as inauspicious. For example, never give a clock, watch, or pocket watch as a gift because to send a clock (é€ Ã© Ëœ,  sà ²ng zhÃ… ng) sounds like the funeral ritual (é€ Ã§ µâ€š,  sà ²ng zhÃ… ng). According to Chinese taboo, clocks symbolize that time is running out. There are many other such ominous  Chinese gifts to avoid. If you give an unlucky gift by accident, the receiver can make it right by giving you a coin which changes the gift to an item they have symbolically purchased. Holidays It is a Chinese taboo to share stories about death and dying and ghost stories during special occasions and holidays. Doing so is considered extremely unlucky. Chinese New Year There are many Chinese New Year taboos  to be wary of. On the first day of the Chinese New Year, inauspicious words cannot be spoken. For example, words such as break, spoil, die, gone, and poor should not be uttered. During the Chinese New Year, nothing should be broken. When eating fish, diners must be careful to not break any of the bones, and be extra careful not to break any plates. Also, nothing should be cut during Chinese New Year as that signifies one’s life could be cut short. Noodles should not be cut and haircuts should be avoided. In general, sharp objects like scissors and knives are avoided during Chinese New Year. All windows and doors in the home should be open on New Year’s Eve to send out the old year and welcome the New Year. All debts should be paid by Chinese New Year and nothing should be lent on New Year’s Day. When preparing paper dragons for the Chinese New Year, it is taboo for women who are menstruating, people in mourning, and babies to be near the dragons when the cloth is being pasted to the dragon’s body. Birthdays One long noodle is typically slurped on one’s birthday. But revelers beware- the noodle should not be bitten or cut as this is believed to shorten one’s life. Weddings In the three months leading up to a couple’s wedding, they should avoid going to a funeral or wake or visiting a woman who has just had a baby. If one of the couple’s parents passes away before the wedding, the wedding must be postponed for 100 days, as attending happy celebrations during mourning is considered disrespectful to the dead. If a roasted pig is given as part of the bride’s gift to the groom’s family, the tail and ears should not be broken. Doing so would mean the bride is not a virgin. Fifth Lunar Month The fifth lunar month is considered an unlucky month. It is a Chinese taboo to dry blankets in the sun and build houses during this time. Hungry Ghost Festival The Hungry Ghost Festival is held during the seventh lunar month. In order to avoid seeing ghosts, people should not go outside at night. Celebrations such as weddings are not held, fishermen do not launch new boats, and many people opt to postpone their trips during the Hungry Ghost Month. The souls of those who die by drowning are considered to be in the greatest turmoil, so some people refuse to go swimming during this time to lessen the chance of a run-in with wayward ghosts.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Mktg Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Mktg - Essay Example When the correct market for Pradaxa has been identified, the product would be easily sold. In case, the company is attracting few people who are in dire need of Pradaxa, it is important to search for a remedy by focusing on large and correct market segments. In addition, it is good to have a clear understanding of the target market who in this case are patients with atrial fibrillation. The more the market is understood, there is high possibility of developing trust in customers who purchase the product. In addition, it is important to identify the age of your market so as to avoid targeting wrong age (Moehlman 46). For instance, Pradaxa product would target people aged sixty and above because most people of this age in U.S suffer from atrial fibrillation. The company should make an assessment to establish if the customers are satisfied with the product, if not, then the company should attempt to find a solution to their needs by improving on its product. Another important aspect of target market is that the company needs to look at the available competition. By doing this, Pradaxa product should be supplied to under-served markets. It is prudent to assess the strength and weakness of your competitors and try to find mechanism that can be different from them. Pradaxa has for long time faced competition from Warfarin. There is need to utilize opportunities such new uses in surgery patients and eliminate threats such as bad publicity dealing with side effects so as to compete favorable with Warfarin and attract more

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Ethnography-Mock at KFC Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethnography-Mock at KFC - Essay Example I studied my ethnography research at KFC in a local mall. It was Sunday and I was at the Dolmen Mall around 1 pm. Dolmen Mall is one of the biggest malls down here in New York. KFC was located in the food court on the first fourth floor of the mall. There were a lot of stalls that had covered the entire fourth floor. The stalls were juxtaposed with each other. In front of the stalls, there were tables and chairs and a comfortable seating area arranged for visiting family. The total number of stalls in the area was 25. The stalls belonged to various genres from coffee to desserts to donuts to fast food to continental to oriental food. KFC was stationed right in the center of the food court. On the left side, it had Mr. Burger and on the right side, it had McDonald's. The staff at KFC was mostly young. I felt that the primary reason behind the young staff at KFC was the less pay per hour. The stall was crowded as it was a weekend afternoon. People from different ethnic and religious ba ckgrounds were frequenting to the stalls. I noticed a gang of friends seated comfortably in a stall in front of KFC. They were happily laughing and chatting away. This group of friends was between 15-16 years. It comprised of 4 boys and three girls. They were cracking jokes, and playing with cell phones. One of the girls was meddling with her clutch to take out a mobile phone. I have noticed that men usually carry cell phones in their pants while women carry it in their handbags. I also observed their table manners and concluded that females were better behaved compared to their male counterparts. The conversations that flowed were very colorful. They ranged from cars to food to college gossip to relation statuses. I noticed men were the ones with the greater sense of humor as they would be the one cracking most of the jokes. Girls, however, were more prompt with their insight into the latest gossip and happenings in college.   1) Frame the study as a larger theoretical, policy, o r practical problem. The study will help frame marketing plans at the mall according to the type of gentry that visits it. 2) Pose initial ethnographic research questions. (aside from essential question) Where is it located? What kind of interiors are there? What kind of people is visiting? What kind of conversations is following? How are they behaving? What is the general mood like? What are the differences between the ways in which the guy is interacting and the way in which the guys are interacting?

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Operating System Used In Portable Devices Computer Science Essay

Operating System Used In Portable Devices Computer Science Essay This report is about Operating system used in portable devices like PDA and laptops etc. As the passage of time consumer needs are becoming more and more demanding and life is becoming compact so as devices are also becoming more powerful and their OS also more advanced and complicated we will discuss some those most commonly used OS and their different uses and the devices they are used produced by different manufacturers and a brief introduction to OS and its types. Operating system is the most important program which enables hardware to communicate with each other and humans also. Every program needs an operating system to run on computers or handheld devices. It is responsible of managing inputs given by user and transferring them into desired outputs by using devices like keyboard, mouse, printers and monitors etc. attached to motherboard. OS usually exists in hard drives of computers or in handheld devices in flash rom memory. OS also arrange, manage organize all file and folders on computers. The more systems are larger the more complex the process in those system becomes so the OS used in these systems are more powerful and the task they perform are also exponential. They are capable of doing many tasks simultaneously without interference of each other and providing expected performance at the same time. Different type of OS available for desktop or laptops are Windows which is dos based and Mac OS which is Unix based, Ubuntu which is Linux based etc. and for handheld there are many choices as well like Symbian OS, Android, Windows mobile and apple iOS etc. Operating system can be mainly of four types based on their use and support. They are as follows: Real time OS This OS is developed for devices which have limited memory and to make them efficient and fast less coding is used as resources are crucial and execution time needs to be minimal. Example is Windows CE. Single user single Task It is a advanced version of previously mentioned Real time OS. In this type one user can perform one task at one time. The palm top or PDA fits in this type. Example is Window mobile. Single user multi Task This is the most commonly used OS type nowadays. These OS are capable of Multitasking and capable of performing all user tasks as multimedia, internet ,games and all commonly used tasks Example of this type could be Window 7 ,Mac OS etc. Multi User These are the most powerful OS of all. They are capable of handling many users at same time and providing all of them with the resources they need. These OS are not like single user multi task where only one user can perform task at a particular time in this type many user can login at same time. Example is UNIX, Linux etc. Literature Review The increasing demand of handheld or portable devices created a new era in computing history as from year 2000 and onwards the approach of people regarding mobile devices changed and life started becoming fast and compact day by day so the need of business and entertainment devices and so the mobile OS started become popular and lots of computer hobbyist and developers started developing faster and efficient mobile OS and its applications. The use of internet, emails and messaging started becoming popular in devices and these facilities started becoming a part of handheld devices and some of those are discussed below. 1) PDA PDA stands for Personal Digital Equipment usually called pocket pcs or pocket computers it is an handheld device which has functionalities like phone, internet, multimedia etc. all in pocket able size. User interact with these through a stick called stylus or nowadays mostly fingers some of these also have built in QWERTY keyboards for quick and better input. PDA also have features like hand recognition, voice recognition and gesture response. 1.1) Types of PDA Some types of PDS available are as follows: 1.1.1) Palm It is kind of PDA which runs its own OS called Palm OS example could be Palm TX, Palm Pilot etc. Palm became a very renowned name in portable computing industry. It played a major role in the development of PDAs it introduced a variety of different versions of devices in market. Palm OS can also be found in Sony Clie, Handspring Visor and Tapwave Zodiac. 1.1.2) Pocket PCs These kinds of PDA are usually based on Microsoft Windows Mobile OS which uses Windows CE core. They are capable of all sorts of functionalities like video and music playback, Web browsing through built in internet explorer, fax sending, and email etc. There are many manufacturers of pocket pcs in market some of which are HP, HTC, Motorola, Dell etc. 2) Laptops These are smaller, lighter and in most cases equally powerful in performance computers compared to desktops. They are meant to do computing on the move. laptops got large capacity ,more memory and better processors as compared to other mobile computing devices. They run Windows Xp, Vista or 7, Mac OS and Ubuntu etc. 2.1) Netbooks These are a newer kind of laptops which are much smaller in size as well as computation. They include all components as normal laptops but in scaled down version there size is normally of a A4 size page and qwerty keyboard with a bit less keys then normal laptops. They are capable of performing normal day to day task as surfing web, using word watching HD YouTube widows (newer versions only).There battery life vary from 8 to 9 hrs. That is 4 to 5 times more than standard size laptops. Mostly Ubuntu, Android, Windows XP and Windows 7 starter are used as OS in netbooks. 3) Other Mobile OS We have discussed Palm OS and Windows Mobile but there are very well known OS which are as follows: 3.1) Symbian OS This OS is the most renowned in the industry and more than 85 percent of mobiles manufacturer use this as standard in their devices and lots of developers had become interested in developing their applications which totally changes the user experience of Symbian running devices. Symbian has released different versions of its OS like Symbian series 20 or 30 for low end handsets, Symbian series 40 and 60 for mid-range and series 90 for high end business communicators and uses 2.5G and 3G. 3.2) Android This is the one of the most promising and trusted OS compared to others. It is verily used in devices like 3G internet tablets ,mobile phones and recently released a 4G version of their android also installed in HTC EVO 4G. It is mainly based on Linux kernels so the development is quite easier and lots of applications are already in market for this OS. 3.3) iOS It is created and developed by apple Inc. It was knows as iPhone OS before it uses apple OS X also UNIX like OS. The new version iOS 4 is a hybrid system and it uses kernel type from Darwin foundation uses 4 abstraction layers. It also supports multitasking and features like video calling, VoIP (Voice over internet protocol), background music playback etc. Conclusion Operating System of devices like PDA and Laptops solves many user problems as the passage of time these mobile devices are more and more compact and high performance so their OS is also becoming more and more complex to develop. As we can see from this research that plenty of mobile devices companies are paying more attention to their OS because if its poorly designed whole device no matter how best the hardware is will change whole user view about device. If the device is losing its internet connection every second or hanging or giving unexpected errors means its OS is not properly developed and tested after implementation on device under different scenarios and environment. The best examples of well-designed OS in mobile industry are Android, iOs, Symbian etc. as mentioned in this report. Laptops on the other hand can run any desktop version OS according to their hardware capabilities and netbooks usually use lighter version of these OS as we have seen in this report.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Women Employment in India

GENDER DISCRIMINATION (Women employment in China and India) Sunida Singh [email  protected] com 082 WE FORGET TO TAKE A PHOTO TOGETHER ^ ^ TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction3 Gender discrimination4 Global Women Employment6 Women Employment in China†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦11 Women Employment in India14 * Labor force trends & legislation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦15 * Management†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 16 * Changing Work Place†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦17 Successful case to promote women employment AVON China, the company for women†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8 TATA India * About Tata Steel & Corporate Sustainability Services18 * Empowerment initiatives of Tata Steel help women to achieve feat19 * TATA Motors Grihini Udyog†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦20 Conclusion & Recommendation26 References27 Introduction This issue of the Gender Discrimination (Women employment in China and India) looks at the gender aspects of this impact, and updates indicators on the situation of women in labor markets. This report reconfirms that gender inequality remains an issue within labor markets globally. Women suffer multiple disadvantages in terms of access to labor markets, and often do not have the same level of freedom as men to choose to work. Gender differences in labor force participation rates and unemployment rates are a persistent feature of global labor markets. In 2008, an estimated 6. 3 per cent of the world’s female labor force was not working but looking for work, up from 6. 0 per cent in 2007, while the corresponding rate for males was 5. 9 per cent in 2008, up from 5. 5 per cent in 2007. Gender wage differentials may be due to a variety of factors, including crowding of women in low paying industries and differences in skills and work experience, but may also be the result of discrimination. Given the constraints women are facing, promoting gender equality and empowering women is not only an important goal of the Millennium Declaration in itself, it is also pivotal to achieving the new target on full and productive employment and decent work for all, and virtually all remaining goals and targets. This issue of Gender Discrimination (women employment in China and India) starts with an analysis of global women employment based on currently available information. Section two looks at the women employment in China and its impact. Followed sections are about women employment in India and its impact. Successful case to promote women employees. A final section concludes and highlights a number of policies to prevent gender discrimination. Gender discrimination Though gender discrimination and sexism refers to beliefs and attitudes in relation to the gender of a person, such beliefs and attitudes are of a social nature and do not, normally, carry any legal consequences. Sex discrimination, on the other hand, may have legal consequences. Though what constitutes sex discrimination varies between countries, the essence is that it is an adverse action taken by one person against another person that would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. Discrimination of that nature in certain enumerated circumstances is illegal in many countries. Currently, discrimination based on sex is defined as adverse action against another person, which would not have occurred had the person been of another sex. This is considered a form of prejudice and is illegal in certain enumerated circumstances in most countries. Sexual discrimination can arise in different contexts. For instance an employee may be discriminated against by being asked discriminatory questions during a job interview, or because an employer did not hire, promote or wrongfully terminated an employee based on their gender, or employers pay unequally based on gender. In an educational setting there could be claims that a student was excluded from an educational institution, program, opportunity, loan, student group, or scholarship due to their gender. In the housing setting there could be claims that a person was refused negotiations on seeking a house, contracting/leasing a house or getting a loan based on their gender. Another setting where there have been claims of gender discrimination is banking; for example if one is refused credit or is offered unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. Another setting where there is usually gender discrimination is when one is refused to extend their credit, refused approval of credit/loan process, and if there is a burden of unequal loan terms based on one’s gender. Socially, sexual differences have been used to justify different roles for men and women, in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary roles. While there are alleged non-physical differences between men and women, major reviews of the academic literature on gender difference find only a tiny minority of characteristics where there are consistent psychological differences between men and women, and these relate directly to experiences grounded in biological difference. However, there are also some psychological differences in regard to how problems are dealt with and emotional perceptions and reactions which may relate to hormones and the successful characteristics of each gender during longstanding roles in past primitive lifestyles. Unfair discrimination usually follows the gender stereotyping held by a society. The United Nations had concluded that women often experience a â€Å"glass ceiling† and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. The term â€Å"glass ceiling† is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination, especially sex discrimination. In the United States in 1995, the Glass Ceiling Commission, a government-funded group, stated: â€Å"Over half of all Master’s degrees are now awarded to women, yet 95% of senior-level managers, of the top Fortune 1000 industrial and 500 service companies are men. Of them, 97% are white. † In its report, it recommended affirmative action, which is the consideration of an employee's gender and race in hiring and promotion decisions, as a means to end this form of discrimination. In 2008, women accounted for 51% of all workers in the high-paying management, professional, and related occupations. They outnumbered men in such occupations as public relations managers; financial managers; and human resource managers. The China's leading headhunter, Chinahr. com, reported in 2007 that the average salary for white-collar men was 44,000 yuan ($6,441), and compared with 28,700 yuan ($4,201) for women. The PwC research found that among FTSE 350 companies in the United Kingdom in 2002 almost 40% of senior management posts were occupied by women. When that research was repeated in 2007, the number of senior management posts held by women had fallen to 22%. Transgender individuals, both male to female and female to male, often experience problems which often lead to dismissals, underachievement, difficulty in finding a job, social isolation, and, occasionally, violent attacks against them. Nevertheless, the problem of gender discrimination does not stop at transgender individuals or with women. Men are often the victim in certain areas of employment as men begin to seek work in office and childcare settings traditionally perceived as â€Å"women's jobs†. One such situation seems to be evident in a recent case concerning alleged YMCA discrimination and a Federal Court Case in Texas The case actually involves alleged discrimination against both men and blacks in childcare, even when they pass the same strict background tests and other standards of employment. It is currently being contended in federal court, as of fall 2009, and sheds light on how a workplace dominated by a majority (women in this case) sometimes will seemingly â€Å"justify† whatever they wish to do, regardless of the law. This may be done as an effort at self-protection, to uphold traditional societal roles, or some other faulty, unethical or illegal prejudicial reasoning. Global Women Employment Gender inequality remains an issue within labor markets globally. Women suffer multiple disadvantages in terms of access to labor markets, and often do not have the same level of freedom as men to choose to work. Gender differences in labor force participation rates and unemployment rates are a persistent feature of global labor markets. In 2008, an estimated 6. per cent of the world’s female labor force was not working but looking for work, up from 6. 0 per cent in 2007, while the corresponding rate for males was 5. 9 per cent in 2008, up from 5. 5 per cent in 2007. Women also face constraints in terms of sectors of economic activity in which they would like to work and working conditions to which they aspire. Women are overrepresented in the agricultural sector, and if the more industrialized regions are excluded, almost half of female employment can be found in this sector alone. Women are also often in a disadvantaged position in terms of the share of vulnerable employment (i. . unpaid family workers and own-account workers) in total employment. These workers are most likely to be characterized by insecure employment, low earnings and low productivity. Those women who are able to secure the relative comfort of wage and salaried employment are often not receiving the same remuneration as their male counterparts. Gender wage differentials may be due to a variety of factors, including crowding of women in low paying industries and differences in skills and work experience, but may also be the result of discrimination. Given the constraints women are facing, promoting gender equality and empowering women is not only an important goal of the Millennium Declaration in itself,1 it is also pivotal to achieving the new target on full and productive employment and decent work for all, and virtually all remaining goals and targets. By the end of 2008, working poverty, vulnerable employment and unemployment were beginning to rise as the effects of the economic slowdown spread. With the deepening of the recession in 2009, the global jobs crisis is expected to worsen sharply. Furthermore, we can expect that for many of those who manage to keep a job, earnings and other conditions of employment will deteriorate. The impact of the crisis will be felt by both men and women, but not necessarily in the same manner. This report presents alternative scenarios for selected labor market indicators in 2008 and 2009 in order to illustrate the effect on gender differentials in labor markets on the basis of changes in the economic environment. January 2009, the IMF again revised the global economic outlook downward, following similar revisions in October and November of 2008. According to the new projections, global economic growth in 2009 will be only 0. 5 per cent. This is considerably lower than was expected in November 2008. The new estimate for global economic growth in 2008 is 3. 4 per cent, which is 0. 4 percentage points lower than the estimate produced in late 2008. As Figure 1 shows, global economic growth in 2008 was significantly below the rates seen in recent years, which resulted in a major weakening in a number of labor markets. After four consecutive years of decreases, the global unemployment rate increased from 5. 7 per cent in 2007 to 6. 0 per cent in 008. The ranks of the unemployed increased by 13. 8 million people between 2007 and 2008, which is the largest year-on-year increase in the period for which global estimates are available. The global number of unemployed in 2008 is estimated at 193 million. Figure 1 Global unemployment trends and economic growth, by sex, 1998-2008* *2008 are preliminary estimates Source: ILO, Trends Econom etric Models, January 2009. The unemployment rate for women was 6. 3 per cent in 2008, as compared to a rate of 5. 9 per cent for men. Between 2007 and 2008, the unemployment rate increased for both men (0. percentage points) and women (0. 3 percentage points), thus slightly reducing the gender gap in unemployment rates that has been seen in the past decade (Figure 1). In terms of numbers of unemployed, 112 million out of the total of 193 million are men, and 81 million are women. The gender gap in the unemployment rate is one indication of the gender inequality in global labor markets. Another important aspect of this inequality is the difference in access to labor markets, as labor market access has much to do with economic empowerment for women. Even though global male and female labor force participation rates show signs of conversion, the gap is narrowing at a very slow pace and it still amounted to almost 25 percentage points in 2008. Women made up 40. 5 per cent of the global labor force in 2008, up from 39. 9 per cent in 1998. Similar to labour force participation, there is a large gender gap in employment-to-population rates, and this gap is narrowing also very slowly. Globally, the employment-to-population rate for the female adult population increased by 1. 2 percentage points between 1998 and 2008, as opposed to a decrease by 1. percentage points for male adults. Regional differences in both levels and changes over time are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 Adult employment-to-population ratios, by sex and region, 1998 and 2008* (%) *2008 are preliminary estimates Source: ILO, Trends Econometric Models, January 2009 The female adult employment-to-population rate increased in seven out of nine regions. The largest increase s can be seen in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, but the rates remain well below 30 per cent for adult women in the latter two regions. Only East Asia and South-East Asia and the Pacific saw a decrease. In East Asia, however, the female adult employment-to-population rate is very high and the gender gap in employment-to-population rates is the smallest of all regions. In most regions, the male adult employment-to-population rate decreased between 1998 and 2008, North Africa and Central and South Eastern Europe (non-EU) & CIS being the exceptions. It is clear that, despite the progress made in many regions, far fewer women participate in labor markets than men. In developed economies, part of the gender gaps in participation and employment can be attributed to the fact that some women freely choose to stay at home and can afford not to enter the labor market. Yet in some developing regions of the world, remaining outside of the labor force is not a choice for the majority of women but an obligation; it is likely that women would opt to work in these regions if it became socially acceptable to do so. This of course does not mean that these women remain at home doing nothing; most are heavily engaged in household activities and unpaid family care responsibilities. Regardless, because most female household work continues to be classified as non-economic activity, the women who are thus occupied are classified as outside of the labor force. While it may not be correct to assume that all women want employment, it is safe to say that women want to be given the same freedom as men to choose to work and to earn a salary if they want to. This is unlikely to be the case. Both India and China, it’s not difficult to see more and more companies aware the gender issues and provide a lot of opportunities, as well as work position for female employees. Such as TATA in India and AVON in China. These two companies make remarkable contribution in reversing workplace prejudice against female. Women Employment in China As everybody knows, China is an ancient nation, the historical root strongly influence people’s mindset. Traditional Chinese are deeply affected by Buddhism; Taoism and Confucianism. Especially Confucianism is the real root of gender discrimination. In Confucius’s admonitory, he thinks women should stand behind the man, and never overcome their men. (B. C 551-479), almost two thousands four hundred more years, the gender unequally in born becomes an inveterate mindset. Subsequently, in 1949s, new China was founded, both male and female gain the equal human rights in law. A department called All-China Women’s Federation (ACWF) was founded at the same time. This organization is founded to protect women’s legal rights include the right to work. Mao Zedong said women hold up half the sky, anything a man can do, a woman can also do. (Mao Zedong, 1968), in practice, Chinese women start to participate in labor market. Chinese women are free from stay at home pattem; share the burden with their husbands to raise a family. But in many traditional family, they don’t allow female to work outside, they prefer women play a role of take care of babies, handle all housework, the less participate with outside world, the better virtues they has. All of these internal and external factors drag Chinese women’s step and keep them far away from work. Along with the socioeconomic development, more and more Chinese women in general become more independent, they desire for the equal human rights as well as man, therefore, they entered the labor market. We can see the female in the workplace is increasing year by year. Women employee plays an important role in both family and workplace. Although the women’s rights receive significant attention, and protected by laws and regulations, but we still observed the gender discrimination in the workplace from directly turn to indirectly discrimination. Over those years, more and more companies use indirect sex discrimination which is more implicit; latent; with recessive reason, and inconspicuous. Whatever sex discrimination happens to one person, when it’s spread out over ten billion working woman, it ends up divided by a large population and becomes unobservable. In the recent years, there are some unspoken rules in the workplace, such as not-marriage, not pregnancy and childbirth. Most of employers even those state-owned enterprises (SOEs), always say that they provide equal employment opportunity abide by law, but they use every kind of excuses to reject female while recruitment, they keep female workers outside the door. According to a survey report which announced by Chinese Women’s federation association, it indicate 90% plus female graduates felt they have suffered gender discrimination when they seeking the jobs. People might hard to believe gender discrimination this kind of negative word to match with famous international corporations, but in fact, 40% foreign companies has implicit gender discrimination in recruitment. Some of them are Fortune 500 companies. And some small companies, female candidate have asked some embarrassing questions via interview. Those questions are very personally and privately. For example, a female candidate was asked did she live with boyfriend. Otherwise, many private and small enterprises will ask a parol agreement about not wedding and family plan within three or even five years. One of the real story is about a female worker who working at a big company, after she has a baby, she was told due to the poor performance, company will not renew the contract with her. Another option is to â€Å"Change the work position†, this kind of change also called demote. Usually, this kind of employee will be talked in person and privately, if they are willing to hand their resignation, company not only pay what they should pay but also provide them a letter of recommendation for the future development. The way of sex discrimination becomes so sly. In this case, company didn’t against the legal regulation, also use the internal performance evaluation as an excuse, although the employee is unhappy with this, but consider about the economic benefits, most of them will have to compromise. We can see, there is a case of unequal fundamental human rights. By the end of Feb 2010, the female graduates’ employee rate is lower than male about 8. 5%. (MyCOS Research, 2010), and MyCOS also point out that the gap of employment rate can’t fully present the real situation of gender equity. Mostly, female employees have to accept the lower salary position or accept the work doesn’t match with their major at all to be employed compare with male at the same qualified level. The employment quality is absolutely low and they are unhappy with this. All of these are the results of gender discrimination. In China, most of women are working on education; medical treatment; research; marketing; advertising; catering; entertainment; service industry and manufacturing. Most of them work at the bottom level; just few female can work on board. Female usually will face gender discrimination while recruitment; payment and welfare; promotion; sexual harassment and retirement. This is the top five hot topic people argue with in China. This is the top five hot topic people argue with in China. In the recent year, high level educational female face a big problem, every four high educated candidates has one person was rejected just because of she is a women. The age of childbearing female who has not had a baby yet usually cannot get the job. When we talk about promotion, there are two main factors strongly effect female’s promote opportunity, there are house work and children care. More than 20% working women have suffered spicy jokes, they are around 18 to 35 years old; more than 40% companies do not have the regulation about sexual harassment issues, all sorts of sexual harassment impede female’s development. In China, male retire at 60 years old and female at 55 years old by law. On the other hand, we can say, this community asks female to start work later than male and retired before male. It means the welfare of retirement payment, is unfair. And the data we provided before does not cover the implicit discrimination part; it means the real world situation will be worse than what we observed. Nowadays, sex discrimination trend to indirect, but there is an insight that relevant regulations and laws had deterrent effects. Although it cannot prevent and solve the current problem effectively, but from direct discrimination to indirect discrimination; finally trend to eliminate sex discrimination in the workplace, this is an ongoing process. At least we can see it’s on the way. In the recent year, corresponding laws and regulations are highly concentrate on eliminate gender discrimination in the workplace. In the case of implicit discrimination, this usually occurred at recruitment process or probationary period. The revised labor law strictly provisions the limitation and requirement on employer terminate employment contract during these period. When women employees suffer implicit discrimination, they should not longer put up with it; it’s time to stand up with a strong voice. Women Employment in India Population * There are an estimated 1,173,108,018 people living in India, which makes it the second most populous country in the world, following China. * Women are 48. 1% of the population of India. * There is a gender gap at birth. For every 100 girls born, there are 112 boys born; this gap is even wider in some regions. Of all ages, the gender gap is 100 females for every 106 males. * India’s religions play a strong role in its culture and people, and the large majority of Indians are Hindu. Educational Achievement * Of those ages 15 and up, just 49. 6% of females were literate compared to 73. 6% of males. * Men dominate the numbers of those enrolled in higher educational deg rees. Enrollment of Higher Educational Students, by Gender Women in the Labour Force * India’s 2001 Census found that women were 31. 6% of all workers. * Women are an estimated 38. % of all economically active individuals. * Of women that work in the labor force, only 20% work in urban areas. * Women earn 66% of men’s salary for equal work. * 26. 2% of women compared to 9. 0% of men cited a lack of role models as a barrier to advancement. Labor Force Trends and Legislation * In an effort to recruit more women employees, some companies are offering 25% bonuses for female employee referrals. * India ranked towards the bottom of the 134 countries, with a ranking of 114, on the 2009 Global Gender Gap Index. * Women received 12 weeks paid maternity leave. The Factories Act of 1948 mandates that employers with 30 or more women employees must provide child care facilities for children under the age of six. * India has a young workforce and population. In the next ten years, d ue to a flood of younger people entering the workforce, and more women entering the workforce, India expects to add an additional 110 million people to its labour force. Management * Women are just 3% of legislative, management, and senior official positions. * Women in management in India face many challenges. Studies have found: -women have to work harder to prove themselves; men do not respect women bosses (and prefer to have them as subordinates as opposed to superiors); -women are excluded from informal networks. * According to one study of ten companies, women were: * 34. 1% of those at the junior level of the workplace, * 16. 2% of those at the middle level, * 8. 2% of those at the senior level. * Of 1,112 directorships on the Bombay Stock Exchange 100, just 59 (5. 3%) are held by women. 32 * Out of 323 total executive directorship positions (generally considered to be prerequisites to holding the CEO position) on the Bombay Stock Exchange 100, just eight (2. 5%) are held by women. 54% of companies on the Bombay Stock Exchange 100 have no women board directors. * Despite occupying small percentages of leadership positions, 97. 2% of women (compared to 95. 6% of men) aspire to jobs with increased responsibility. Changing Workplaces * As companies strive to retain valuable female talent, companies are attempting to implement programs to create more women-friendly workplaces. One study of IT companies examined work-life/woman-friendly programs. Some of the most common programs include: * Flexible work schedules/hours (68% of respondents) * Sexual harassment policies (68%) * Flexible leave policy (64%) Transportation policy (55%) * Health and wellness programs (50%) * Day care for children/parenting workshops (27%) * Women’s lounge/recreation (23%) * Women’s forum /networks (18%) * The Global Gender Gap Index is measured by the World Economic Forum. It ranked 130 countries in 2008 on the size of their gender gap between women and men in four a reas: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, political empowerment, and health and survival. Successful case to Promote women employment AVON China, the company for women AVON, one of the largest direct marketing company in the world; owned more han three billion consumers and five million employees worldwide. Over these years, AVON engages on help women to have their own career; to have the equal opportunity to work as man. AVON China also creates a lot of jobs for Chinese women. The mission of AVON is the company for women. This mission leads see women not only as consumer but also potential employees in the near future. The CEO of AVON is a Chinese female named Andrea Jung. She also ranked NO. 5 in the 50 most powerful women in business list (2010, Fortune Magazine), AVON have launch their business over 100 plus countries all over the world. You can easy to find its beauty store just about every city in China. AVON provides flexible home-based business for Chinese female who desire for work and life balancing. It encourages women to start up their own business with very little cost. Just as low initial cost as the price of a lipstick with unlimited earnings potentials. This is one of the benefits of becoming an AVON representative or a direct sells person. Most of AVON sellers are female, women knows what women wants! AVON China provides great opportunities to hire and promote female employment. TATA India, the company for women About Tata Steel & Corporate Sustainability Services Established in 1907, Tata Steel is the flagship company of Tata Group, the most respected business house in India and one of the top ten steel producers in the world. The Company was founded on the philosophy that society is not just another stakeholder in its business, but its prime purpose. As Tata Steel's operations have expanded to new geographies, the Company has retained a collective focus on the various areas of corporate social responsibility that impact the environment, people and their health, and society at large. In India, the Company is pledged to causes such as strengthening civic amenities in and around its sites, providing healthcare, education, training, employment and recreation, and preserving culture and heritage, especially of indigenous tribes. Tata Steel has expanded its reach from the city of Jamshedpur and its adjoining urban areas to over 800 villages in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh, touching the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. In 2008, Tata Steel India became the first integrated steel plant in the world, outside Japan, to be awarded the Deming Application Prize 2008 for excellence in Total Quality Management. Empowerment initiatives of Tata Steel help women to achieve feat Concerted efforts by Tata Steel have helped the women in Kalinganagar area to achieve a major millennium development goal of the United Nations pertaining to gender equality and empowerment. The steel major's initiative to organize village womenfolk through formation of women Self Help Groups (SHGs) and support for creation of alternate income-generating activities have helped them to attain this feat. In Kalinganagar, where Tata Steel is setting up a 6 million tonne integrated steel plant, 24 women self-help groups have been formed with 317 women as members. Out of them, 124 women are engaged in various income generating activities. The activities taken up by these women include poultry, mushroom farming , goat and sheep rearing , pickle making, Muduki and Badi making , stitching, Ethnic craft making, Phenyl and bleaching production and carrying on petty business. Apart from this, 23 women are also engaged in various community development works as teachers, community health facilitators, community organizers and SHG co-coordinators. Strengthening empowerment through various initiatives like Tejaswini programme, has paid rich dividend with significant increase in the number of women engaged in non-agricultural activities. It increased from only 5 in the pre-displacement period to 200 in 2010, which is very significant. Similarly, average annual income of the women members of the relocated families has reached Rs 24,600 compared to 2006 when they didn’t have any non-agricultural income. This exemplary achievement has also been maintained in maternal mortality and infant mortality rate. While it was targeted to reduce maternal mortality (by 3 quarters) and infant mortality (by two third) by the 2015, the same has been achieved well before the deadline. Due to 100% institutional delivery and regular medical checks-ups, the said target is pulled off. Apart from zero maternal mortality, 100 percent institutional delivery has also been ensured for these tribal women. Besides, zero infant mortality, 100 percent immunization of children has been attained due to the health initiatives taken by Tata Steel. This is considered as major achievements as infant mortality & maternal death was just a common phenomenon for poor tribals of Kalinganagar area. TATA Motors Grihini Udyog Began in 1973 with mere 7 hesitant women members, extremely limited cash in hand and very humble revenues. But under the able guidance of our visionary mentor Late Ms. Leelatai Moolgaokar, we stand tall with over 1000 women members (most of who are shareholders), 17 centres and over Rs. 79 million turnovers. Grihini Udyog is a collective enterprise which endeavours to empower the women relatives of Tata Motors employees. Philosophy TATA work ethics rest on the twin principle of ‘justness' and ‘ethical'. Justness is ensured through the inbuilt co-operative mode which ensures distribution of dividend in proportion of one’s skill set. It is also endured that the Society does not indulge in exploitation of anyone in any manner. Secondly, all labour rights within the ambit of ethical labor practices are secured to the individual members. They believe in ethical outsourcing of labour oriented process. During a span of 37 years, Tata Motors Grihini Udyog has gone through different phases, transforming itself from manufacturing household consumer products to intricate wiring and hi-tech Automotive Electronic Products. They work in 4 societies which are spread over 17 centres. These centres are distributed in and around Pune. 1. Tata Motors Grihini Shivankala Society – Stitches the uniforms and hand gloves for the company employees and supplies to Tata Motors. It now stitches 45 other items of sale including bags, purse etc. and sells it to a wide set of customers. 2. Tata Motors Grihini Cable Harness Society – Assembles the cable harness and supplies back to the company. 3. Tata Motors Grihini Electronics Society* – Assembles the electronic components used in a vehicle and supplies to the company. 4. Tata Motors Grihini Vividh Karyakari Society – Prepares spices, condiment and other eatable items. It has a wide customer base for its products which not only includes Tata Motors but other organizations in the vicinity. Tata Motors Grihini Electronics Society has achieved ISO 9001-2000 certificate on 13th October 2004. We achieved certificate of ISO 9001 – 2008 in December 2010. How they work? They work online on SAP enabled SRM system. Based on the quantum demand of the product and services, targets for each month is set and delivered as and when required by the customer. This has been achieved by strategic alliance between Tata Motors (through MASOP arrangement/process) Their Proud * Respected and reliable Vendor of Tata Motors * Assisting New Product Introduction (NPI) by providing wiring for prototype vehicles. * Coping with increase in production volumes. * Additional business relations with other companies like Motherson Sumi, Tata Power. Certificate for ISO 9001-2000 from BVQI(Bureau Veritas Quality International) * Our three employees have achieved the Gunvant Kamgar Award conferred by the Maharashtra government. New Horizons The new age women are far more educated and have come up with new and advanced skill sets which were not witnessed decades back. Their sustainability plan attempts to harness this potential. The chief mechanisms would be  œ 1. Linking of business unit with the rural population in order to scale up the quantum of goods produced especially that pertaining to Vividh Karyakari Society. . Enhancement of the membership base of the workforce through raising the inclusion bar of the traditional outsiders i. e. those who are not relatives of the Tata Motors employee. 3. To open up additional selling unit in order to scale up the sale. Currently, 20% of the revenue comes from sale to customers other than Tata Motors. This shall be raised. Beyond Business Besides regular business we celebrate the other dimension of life. Be it organizing blood donation camps or tree plantation. They also celebrate Women's day on 8th March with full enthusiasm. They organize Cultural Programmes on the Annual General Meeting. They make generous donations to the Sakal Relief Fund. They publish the Darpan Magazine and published Smrutigandha on 3rd August 2005 on the occasion of celebrating 25 years of the organization. Key Features * Society is for the women and totally managed by the women * Members work only for five hours in a day * Work centers located in residential areas of this city and its industrial area * Apart from share of profits through dividend women are also entitled * Monthly remuneration with statutory benefits is given to members. Tata Motors Grihini Vividh Karyakari Sahakari Audyogik Sanstha Maryadit Variety of namkins, sweets and many more. Tata Motors Grihini Shivankala Sahakari Audyogik Sanstha Maryadit Various types of cotton, terrycloth uniforms, cotton, hand gloves, caps. Also manufactured items like school bags, kitchen aprons. Tata Motors Grihini Electronics Sahakari Audyogik Sanstha Maryadit Products – Redio antina Flashers 12V & 24V, multifunction modules, digital clock, relay 12V & 24V . Tata Motors Grihini Cable Harness Sahakari Audyogik Sanstha Maryadit Assembly of various types of wiring harnesses that is Main cables, front to tail, roof & panel wiring for Tata Motors Safari, Sumo. Evolution YEAR| NO. OF CENTRES | NO. OF LADIES | TURNOVER IN Rs. MILLION | 1973 – 1974 | 1| 8| –| 1980-1981| 19| 712| 1. 33| 1986-1987| 21| 836| 2. 93| 1991-1992| 24| 1100| 7. 43| 1996-1997| 24| 1623| 20. 5| 2002-2003| 20| 1099| 31. 45| 2005-2006| 22| 1300| 52. 5| 2006-2007| 20| 1329| 57. 07| 2007-2008| 21| 1300| 61. 32| 2008-2009| 18| 1091| 60. 03| 2009-2010| 17| 1011| 79. 00| Growth * From 8 ladies, the organization has grown to more than 1000 ladies strong. Annual revenue of more than 7 crores from 4 lines of business (LOB). * LOB spreading across traditional businesses like masala and tailoring to the technologically advanced businesses of electronics and cable. * Entire activities independently managed by the members of Grihini. CONCLUSION Sex discrimination is a very serious socioeconomic problem which exists worldwide, not only in In dia and China but also other countries. How to eliminate discrimination in the workplace? Nobody find out the perfect solution yet. Under the global economic recession, the labor supply is much stronger than labor demand. This might narrow the room for eliminate gender discrimination in the workplace. We should careful avoid financial crisis makes gender discrimination become more reasonable in the workplace. To avoid cost from gender discrimination in the workplace, company can use strategies for prevention. There are a number of steps that company can take to reduce the risk of gender discrimination occurring in workplace. Although company may not be able to take all of the steps, but should take as many of them as you can. Adopt a clear gender discrimination policy. In company employee handbook, should have a policy devoted to gender discrimination. That policy should; define gender discrimination; state in no uncertain terms that you will not tolerate gender discrimination; state that company will discipline or fire any wrongdoers; set out a clear procedure for filing gender discrimination complaints; state that company will investigate fully any complaint that receive, and; state that company will not tolerate retaliation against anyone who complains about gender discrimination. The gender equity issues should always be involved into considerations. In order to protect the employment equal opportunity, we can not only reply on laws and regulations, need all corresponding parties to make contributions as well. REFERENCES ACWF, All-China Women’s Federation’s official website: http://www. acwf. com/ Australian Human Rights Commission, women in leadership, sex discrimination. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://www. hreoc. gov. au/sex_discrimination/programs/women_leadership. html Avon product Inc (2011), the official website: http://www. avon. com/ Catalyst (2011) Women in the labor force in India. Retrieved Oct 18 2011 from: http://www. catalyst. rg/file/453/qt_women_in_the_labour_force_in_india. pdf Catalyst (2011) Leadership gender gap in India. DECCAN HERALD, Retrieved Oct 19th 2011 from: http://www. deccanherald. com/content/116956/leadership-gender-gap-india. html Confucius (551-479 B. C), the admonitory of Confucius. Retrieved Oct 19 2011 from: http://baike. baidu. com/view/2176. htm Elizabeth Boroderick (2011). Gneder equality blueprint 2010. Australian human rights commission. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://www. humanrights. gov. au/sex_discrimination/publication/blueprint/index. html Felice (2011) Women in the labor force in China. Quick Takes. Published: Aug 2011. Catalyst. Chianging workplaces, changing lives. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://www. catalyst. org/publication/432/women-in-the-labor-force-in-china Jane Nolan (2008) Gender and Equality of opportunity in China’s labour market. Department of Sociology. University of Cambridge. GeNet working paper NO. 31 Retrieved Oct 17th 2011 from: http://www. genet. ac. uk/workpapers/GeNet2008p31. pdf Laurie Burkitt & Josh Chin (2011) China’s Race with the Gender Gap. Published on April 29 2011. CHINA REALTIME REPORT. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://blogs. wsj. om/chinarealtime/2011/04/29/china%E2%80%99s-race-with-the-gender-gap/ Liz Bolshaw (2011) National differences in MBA gender gap: China and Hongkong lead the way. Published on June 21 2011. Women at the top blog. FINANCIAL TIMES. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://blogs. ft. com/women-at-the-top/2011/06/22/national-differences-in-mba-gender-gap-china-and-hong-kong-lead-the-way/#axzz1b9mLGV qj Lu Pin (2009) Women vulnerable to gender discrimination in workplace. Published on June 21 2009. GLOBAL TIMES. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://opinion. globaltimes. cn/commentary/2009-06/438474. tml Margaret Maurer-Fazio & Thomas G, Rawski & Wei Zhang (1997) Gneder Wage Gap in China’s Labor Market; Size, Structure, Trends. Working paper NO. 88 the William Davidson institutes. Retrieved Oct 18 2011 from: http://wdi. umich. edu/files/publications/workingpapers/wp88. pdf Mao Zedong (1968), quotations from chairman mao tsetung, Retrieved Oct 18 2011 from: http://baike. baidu. com/view/581241. htm Psych Central News Editor (2009). Gneder discrimination in the workplace. Work and Career News. Retrieved Oct 17 2011. From: http://psychcentral. com/news/2009/10/09/gender-discrimination-in-the-workplace/8868. tml Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi (2010), the Global Gender Gap Report. World Economic Forum. Retrieved Oct 18 2011 from: http://www3. weforum. org/docs/WE F_GenderGap_Report_2010. pdf Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi (2009), the Global Gender Gap Report. World Economic Forum. Retrieved Oct 18 2011 from: http://directivasdearagon. com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/report2009. pdf Stephen Gandel (2010) Are women less competitive than man? Explaining the gender gap. Posted on SEARCH TIME. COM Nov 30 2010, Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://curiouscapitalist. blogs. time. om/2010/11/30/are-women-less-competitive-than-men-explaining-the-gender-gap/ Tripti Lahiri (2011) China vs. India, the population numbers. Published on May 2nd 2011. CHINA REALTIME REPORT. Retrieved Oct 17 2011 from: http://blogs. wsj. com/chinarealtime/2011/05/02/china-vs-india-the-population-numbers/ Wang Zhiyong (2004), women in the workplace: A great leap backward. Published at China. org. cn. March 22 2004. Retrieved Oct 19 2011 from: http://china. org. cn/english/2004/Mar/90950. htm Xixoaling Shu & Yanjie Bian (2010) Market Transition and Gender Gap in Earning in Urban China, the University of North Carolina. 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Thursday, January 9, 2020

The World Of Law Enforcement And Crime Laboratories

In the world of law enforcement and crime laboratories, there is always a great need to train newly hired crime scene investigators and laboratory analysts. In addition, continuing education to gain or maintain certifications and/or laboratory accreditation is important to keep professionals up to date with the newest technologies and techniques. However, in the United States, licensing and certification for crime scene and laboratory personnel is not usually required, but often noted as a preferred or desired qualification (NCR, 2009). If required, certification is usually established at the agency level and not mandated by the state. With more than 17,000 agencies in the U.S., ranging in size from just a few officers in rural communities to more than 36,000 sworn officers in the New York Police Department (Burch, et al., 2012), consistency in qualifications, training standards and expectations is difficult to find at any level, regardless of the beliefs held by the general public r egarding the capabilities of their criminal justice system. In looking at training issues internationally, the fragmented scenario in the U.S. is similar to that of Australia, but countries such as the Netherlands and United Kingdom use centralized training programmes that tend to be more cost-effective and consistent. There are many career paths within the field of criminal justice. Opportunities exist in law enforcement, military, the court system, corrections and other public safety agencies.Show MoreRelatedMid Term Essay1030 Words   |  5 PagesCriminal Justice 211-04 Police Operations July 13, 2010 Kaplan University The development of Law Enforcement originated with the need to protect Humans, and property. Once organized systems were put into place, August Vollmer, the first Town Marshall for Berkeley, and later the Chief of Police and Crimininalist for Berkeley California is credited as being instrumental in many facets of Law Enforcement which are still used today and have been enhanced and improved several times over the past decadesRead MoreDna Evidence Of A Dna Unit Within A Crime Lab1551 Words   |  7 PagesToday in the crime world, DNA evidence is strongly accepted in solving crime cases. 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